In The Righteous Mind, Jonathan Haidt explores the institutions and psychology that allow human beings to exist in peaceful society. He says that humans are 10% bee and 90% ape, meaning that 90% of the time, we are motivated by self interest and 10% of the time, we are motivated to protect the group. In his chapter “Religion Is a Team Sport” Haidt discusses how religion taps into the bee part of human instincts.
[R]eligions are sets of cultural innovations that spread to the extent that they make groups more cohesive and cooperative.
In a previous chapter, Haidt discussed collective movements (like marching together or ecstatic dancing around a fire) activate a biotechnology that binds individuals to the group and helps them transcend self-interest to lose oneself in the group. The traditional standing/sitting/kneeling and hymn-singing and chanting in church reminds me of this biotechnology. The ritual of attending church weekly taps into our social instincts. In conclusion:
Whether you believe in hell, whether you pray daily, whether you are a Catholic, Protestant, Jew, or Mormon . . . none of these things correlated with generosity. The only thing that was reliably and powerfully associated with the moral benefits of religion was how enmeshed people were in relationships with their co-religionists.
In other words, the thing about religion that someone a better person is the ritual of attending– not faith in God.
Chapter 7 of The Hobbit Party discusses Tolkien’s love for nature. I remember watching The Two Towers in the theater, when Treebeard describes Saruman has having “a mind of metal and wheels ;and he does not care for growing things, except as far as they serve him for a moment.”
Tolkien’s attitude toward the industrial revolution always made me uncomfortable. Growing up, my family would regularly go hiking or camping and I still love to escape from the city to be among trees and water.
A 2010 study asked 280 subjects in Japan to take strolls in both the park and the city. After the nature walks, the participants showed lower “concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol, lower pulse rate, lower blood pressure.” Strolling through parks is apparently a popular hobby in Japan, and goes by the poetic and slightly racy name of “forest bathing.”
On the other hand, the kind of people who generally speak out about protecting the environment are also the kind of people who tend to place little value on human life. They also tend to support laws that violate property rights–which I cannot support.
And so, Witt and Richards come to the man responsible for an inordinate amount of anxiety I suffered in college: Rousseau.
One mistake that Tolkien-appreciating contemporary environmentalists seem prone to is seeing Tolkien as a kissing cousin of eighteenth-century French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau… The English writer and psychiatrist Theodore Dalyrmple summarizes Rousseau’s view as “the complete opposite of the idea that man is born with original sin”, and suggests that it spread quickly through Western culture “because it means all you have to do to be good is to be your true self, and since your true self is really determined, you know what your true self is by doing exactly what you like.” The idea does more than excuse bad behavior, Dalrymple emphasizes. On Rousseau’s telling, “doing what you like, exactly what you like, becomes virtue, which is one of the reasons, for example, why in this country now, people who get very drunk in public believe that they’re acting virtuously”
We’re back to hippies. “Be true to yourself” is a nice concept, but it also forgives a lot of selfishness. Virtue is not about acting on impulse or instinct, but rather, recognizing that serving others’ needs actually makes us better and happier. Humans constantly struggle with the conflict between short-term satisfaction and long-term satisfaction, just ask the diet and fitness industry. It’s not that “be true to yourself” is wrong, we just have to be clear what it means in practice. Jacobs wrote in Drop Dead Healthy that he took a picture of himself and ran it through some aging software. He used the picture of his future self for motivation to eat healthy and exercise, being true to his future self who will want to play with grandchildren and remember their names. That picture reminded him of long-term satisfaction, which helped him deny short-term temptation to sit around and eat junk food.
I always get lost in these trains of thought… For example, communities with strong familial bonds show high incidence of longevity, because maintaining relationships is healthy. So is it selfish to maintain a friendship because of the ultimate benefit? Or is it unselfish, because you’re considering another’s needs? I suppose it’s both, and doesn’t really matter.
As for environmentalism, it does not make sense to simply leave nature to its own devices. The Hobbit Party cites Matthew Dickerson and Jonathan Evans who identify Tolkien’s attitude as “humans are best seen as both managers and servants, gardening a natural order that is useful but also valuable in its own right.” This reminds me of Pride and Prejudice, when Elizabeth first sees Mr. Darcy’s home of Pemberley.
Elizabeth was delighted. She had never seen a place for which nature had done more, or where natural beauty had been so little counteracted by an awkward taste.
Earlier in the novel, Lady Catherine de Bourgh’s home serves as the example of awkward taste. Pemberley provides a beautiful, orderly home for the Darcys without disrupting the natural resources of the country side. Humans and nature coexist harmoniously at Pemberley, same as the Shire. The presence of human civilization does not automatically cause the destruction of nature, as Rousseau and his intellectual progeny believe. Rather, as in the Garden of Eden, we are here to serve as caretakers.